Meldonium (Mildronate) is a Latvian medication that is used to treat a range of heart conditions. Its effect is achieved through the dilation of blood vessels and improvement of the blood system functioning, which allows improving the physical strength and mental endurance while exercising. It also serves as a back-up for brain functioning. Meldonium is also known to be banned by world anti-doping organization dealing with drug tests for sportsmen.
The therapeutic effect of this medication lies in the management of cardiac disorders and inhibition of carnitine synthesis. This medication allows increasing the flow of oxygen through the blood system, which leads to the improvement of the blood flow in the brain and other body systems. In general, Meldonium can be perceived as a performance-enhancing medication that can be used for prevention and treatment purposes. This drug has different spheres of application as will be discussed further.
When Is Meldonium Prescribed?
Meldonium belongs to the category of fatty acid oxidation inhibitors that is currently majorly utilized for the treatment of heart conditions, including angina, heart failure and severe heart attack apart from a range of other instances. This medication allows diverting the flow of cartinite, which is a nutrient engaged in fat synthesis. Meldonium improves peripheral circulation in patients suffering from chronic heart-related conditions. It is also effective in managing acute ischemic stroke, while in some countries it is used to manage problems associated with blood circulation in the brain. It is also used to improve mood and motor skills as well as alleviate such symptoms as feeling dizzy and sick. As such, Meldonium is used not only for the management of heart-related conditions, but also for the improvement of one’s mental and physical abilities necessary for better performance.
One of the less common uses of Meldonium is the alleviation of withdrawal symptoms in patients who undergo the treatment of alcoholism. Other potentially beneficial effects of Meldonium include the following:
- Modulation of immune system;
- Management of stomach ulcers;
- Treatment of infectious conditions of lungs and respiratory system;
- After-surgery treatment aimed at increasing the blood flow;
- Treatment of eye trauma.
When Not to Use Meldonium?
This medication should not be used in case a patient has impaired vein blood flow as well as increased intracranial pressure or swelling. Besides, it should not be used in case you are pregnant or breastfeeding due to possible adverse reactions to the nursing baby. Age under 18 is also a counter-indication to the use of Meldonium. This medication should not be administered in case you experience allergic reactions to the components of this drug.
How to Take Meldonium?
Due to the possible development of agitation and signs of increased productivity, it is advisable to take Meldonium in the first half of the day. A particular dosage will depend on such factors as the current state of the patient and way of administration (intravenous injections or tablet form). Do not ignore the directions of your physician in order to ensure the maximum effectiveness of the treatment and minimize possible side effects. Follow these steps when taking the medication:
- In case you are taking tablets, a regular dose would be 0.25-1 g a day, while the duration of treatment will depend on the current condition of the patient and his/her reaction to treatment;
- As for injections, a regular dosage amounts to 0.5-1 g once a day, while the duration of treatment may vary in each particular case;
- Meldonium may also be administered parabulbarly. In this case, injections (0.5 ml) are administered on a daily basis within a period of 10 days.
Potentially Dangerous Side Effects
Meldonium may cause a range of undesirable adverse reactions that sometimes require immediate medical attention to avoid irreversible consequences and elevated risks to one’s health. The following side effects may occur during the treatment with Meldonium:
- Irregular heart beat;
- Changes of blood pressure;
- Mental agitation;
- Upset stomach;
- Skin irritation, redness, hives or rash as well as other forms of allergic reactions.
Seek immediate medical help if you experience severe side effects that do not alleviate after a while and persist for too long. Otherwise, it may provoke dangerous health outcomes.
Warnings and Precautions
Take extra precautions in case you are suffering from liver or kidney diseases, especially if the associated conditions are chronic. The long-term practice of treating acute forms of heart failure and unstable heartbeat demonstrates that Meldonimum should not be perceived as the first-aid drug against acute cardiac syndrome. As such, it is advisable to use other therapeutic means to treat this condition.
Possible Drug Interactions
Meldonium may interact with a number of other medications. Among others, a combination of Meldonium with medications used for treating angina, high blood pressure and a range of heart conditions may strengthen the effects of the latter. Adrenergic antagonists, anti-hypertensive drugs as well as vasodilating agents used together with Meldonium may lead to the development of undesirable side effects, such as mild forms of irregular heartbeat, lowered blood pressure as well as other symptoms. As such, the combination of these drugs is inadvisable and needs to be avoided whenever possible. Tell your doctor about any other conditions you might be suffering from and any medications you are currently taking in order to prevent possible unwanted interactions between the drugs. Avoid using Meldonium without preliminary consultation with a medical practitioner.
Meldonium needs to be stored in a dry place protected from direct sunlight at a temperature of not more than 25°C. Keep this medication away from children and pets.